1.

A. But this does not mean that death was the Egyptians’ only pre-occupation.
B. Even papyri come mainly from pyramid
C. Most of our traditional sources of information about the Old Kingdom are monuments of the rich like pyramids and tombs.
D. Houses in which ordinary Egyptians lived have not been preserved, and when most people died, they were buried in simple graves.
E. We know infinitely more about the wealthy people of Egypt than we do about the ordinary people, as most monuments were of the rich people.



2.

A. Experts such as Larry Burns, head of research at GM, reckon that only such a full hearted leap will allow the world to cope with the mass motorisation that will one day come to China or India.
B. But once hydrogen is being produced from biomass or extracted from underground coal or made from water, using nuclear or renewable electricity, the way will be open for a huge reduction in carbon emissions from the whole system.
C. In theory, once all the bugs have been sorted out, fuel cells should deliver better total fuel economy than any existing engines.
D. That is twice as good as the internal combustion engine, but only five percentage points better than a diesel hybrid.
E. Allowing for the resources needed to extract hydrogen from hydrocarbon, oil, coal or gas, the fuel cell has an efficiency of 30%.



3.

A. A study to this effect suggests that the average white-collar worker demonstrates only about twenty-five percent listening efficiency.
B. However, for trained and good listeners, it is not unusual to use all the three approaches during a setting, thus improving listening efficiency.
C. There are three approaches to listening; listening for comprehension, listening for empathy, and listening for evaluation.
D. Although we spend nearly half of each communication listening, we do not listen well.
E. Each approach has a particular emphasis that may help us to receive and process information in different settings.



4.

A. The history of mankind is full of such fightings between communities, nation, and people.
B. From the primitive weapons of warfare, man has advanced to the modern nuclear weapons.
C. Ever since the dawn of civilisation, man has been fighting with man.
D. A modern war is scientific in character, but the effect is the same, wiping human existence out of this earth.
E. The only difference now seems to be in the efficiency of the instruments used for killing each other.



5.

A. One modern view of Paganism is that it is the “ancestral religion of the whole of humanity”, and whilst it is an ancient religion, it remains active in the modern world.
B. The word ‘pagan’ is derived from Latin, and may be translated to mean ‘country dweller’.
C. This term was first used during the Early Christian period to describe those who had yet to embrace Christianity.
D. Modern Paganism (known also as Neopaganism or Contemporary Paganism) is a movement / group of religions / spiritual traditions centered on the reverence of nature.
E. It was used as a derogatory term to separate believers (in the Christian God) from unbelievers.



6.

A. However, the authorities there aren’t ready to rest on their laurels, and they’ve decided to carry through a real revolution in their school system.
B. Finnish officials want to remove school subjects from the curriculum.
C. There will no longer be any classes in physics, math, literature, history, or geography.
D. Finland’s education system is considered one of the best in the world.
E. In international ratings, it’s always in the top ten.



7.

A. The implicit or explicit purpose of most of these authors is to help prevent the expected disaster by suggesting changes in human behaviour or policies.
B. Thus these works are not really predictions of what the future will be like, but rather what it could be like if present trends continue.
C. There are a number of writings today warning that if humankind does not change its ways some kind of disaster will occur in the future.
D. Jonathan Schell argues that the nation-state system, with its competition among big nations armed with nuclear weapons and with the proliferation of nuclear weapons to developing nations, is leading the world to a nuclear war.
E. The most frequently discussed disasters are those caused by nuclear weapons, food shortages, pollution, overpopulation and overconsumption, the depletion of non-renewable resources, and cosmic collisions.



8.

A. La Boheme, the now-classic story of a group of poor artists living in a Paris garret, earned mixed reviews, while Tosca was downright panned by critics.
B. In his later life, he would write some of the best-loved operas of all time: La Boheme (1896), Tosca (1900), Madame Butterfly (1904) and Turandot (left unfinished when he died in 1906).
C. On this day in 1904, Giacomo Puccini’s opera Madame Butterfly premieres at the La Scala theater in Milan, Italy.
D. The young Puccini decided to dedicate his life to opera after seeing a performance of Giuseppe Verdi’s Aida in 1876.
E. Not one of these, however, was an immediate success when it opened.



9.

A. Those filled Oroville, prompting the release of water onto its spillway.
B. Oroville Dam in California, a crisis that foreshadows what the Golden State can expect more of with climate change, several experts said.
C. Then that structure suffered a sinkhole that became apparent last week.
D. A series of storms powered by a phenomenon known as the atmospheric river hit Northern California this winter.
E. The situation at Oroville — in Butte County, Calif. , northeast of Sacramento — happened after both an infrastructure failure and a weather event, said Daniel Swain, a climate scientist with UCLA.



10.

A. Thailand’s contribution to basic science has also grown in recent years, with its researchers doubling their output in physical sciences journals in the index between 2012 and 2015.
B. Known for its resorts and Buddhist temples, Thailand is also a regional center of R&D and high-tech manufacturing.
C. Established in 1991, it supports centers of excellence in genetic engineering, biotechnology, electronics, and nanotechnology.
D. It’s the world’s second-largest exporter of hard disk drives and a major center for car production.
E. A major player is the state-backed National Science and Technology Development Agency.



11.

A. But here he completely reverses his procedure; from beginning to end the chief instrumentalities of the poem are external; its conflicts and solutions are brought about by powers seemingly beyond human might and intelligence.
B. It differs, therefore, from every other work of Shakespeare in the character of its mediation.
C. Our poet, in most of his dramas, portrays the real world and exhibits man as acting from clear conscious motives, and not from supernatural influences.
D. It should, however, be classified with “As You Like it” and “Midsummer Night’s Dream,” in both of which the ideal world is the grand mediating principle.
E. The great and striking peculiarity of Shakespeare’s Tempest play is that its action lies wholly in the ideal world.



12.

A. When the mission was completed, the shuttle fired engines to reduce speed and, after descending through the atmosphere, landed like a glider.
B. Launched by two solid-rocket boosters and an external tank, only the aircraft-like shuttle entered into orbit around Earth.
C. In 1976, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) unveiled the world’s first reusable manned spacecraft, the Enterprise.
D. Early shuttles took satellite equipment into space and carried out various scientific experiments.
E. Five years later, space flights of the shuttle began when Columbia traveled into space on a 54-hour mission.



13.

A. China, however, continues to celebrate the traditional Chinese New Year, although in a shorter version with a new name–the Spring Festival.
B. Significantly, younger generations of Chinese now observe the holiday in a very different manner as for some young people, the holiday has evolved from an opportunity to renew family ties to a chance for relaxation from work.
C. The Chinese New Year, or Spring Festival as it’s been called since the 20th century, remains the most important social and economic holiday in China.
D. Originally tied to the lunar-solar Chinese calendar, the holiday was a time to honor household and heavenly deities as well as ancestors, It was also a time to bring the family together for feasting.
E. With the popular adoption in China of the Western calendar in 1912, the Chinese joined in celebrating January 1 as New Year’s Day.



14.

A. These are the tepuis (a Pemón Indian word for mountain), the most famous of which is called Mount Roraima.
B. Deep within in the rainforests of Venezuela, a series of plateaus arise more than 9000 feet off the ground.
C. From above, they look like islands in the sky.
D. The mystical mountains fascinated explorers and writers for centuries, most notably Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who described an ascent of Mount Roraima in his 1912 novel The Lost World.
E. The tepuis are so unique in their geography that thousands of plant species exist nowhere else on the planet except on these plateaus.



15.

A. Legends and peace blend with the lovely atmosphere of this UNESCO World Heritage site to create one of the most fascinating places of ancient Kyoto, Japan.
B. Ryōanji, translated as Peaceful Dragon Temple, is a Zen Temple located in the northwestern part of Kyoto, Japan.
C. Apart from this renowned rock garden, the temple also includes a beautiful wooded garden and a relaxing pond inhabited by ducks and a goddess of good fortune.
D. Ryōanji is recorded to have been established in 1450 by Hosokawa Katsumoto, the deputy to the Ashikaga shogunate.
E. This well-known temple was built during the 15th century, and is today best known for its Zen rock garden, which is regarded as the most famous of its kind in Japan.



 16.

A. In this condition, great numbers lay on the ground, as if there had been a defeat.
B. In 5th century BC, Xenophon – a Greek historian and philosopher – wrote about the effects of the mad honey when he and his army encountered it while retreating from Babylon and his troops enchanted by the sweet nectar had more than their fair share in the woods.
C. The next day, none of them died, but recovered their senses about the same hour as they were seized; and the third and fourth day, they go up as if they had taken a strong potion.”
D. ”All the soldiers who ate of the honeycombs lost their senses, seized with vomiting and purging, none of them being able to stand on their legs.
E. Those who ate but a little were like men very drunk, and those who ate much like madmen, and some like dying persons.



17.

A. He was responsible for the unification of Denmark,Following this feat, Harald set his sights beyond the borders of his own kingdom, and conquered Norway.
B. Whilst the majority of his subjects were followers of paganism, Harald was favorably inclined towards Christianity.
C. Harald “Blåtand” Gormsson was a King of Denmark and Norway who lived during the 10th century AD.
D. Today, Harald Blåtand (‘Bluetooth’) is a household name thanks to the wireless technology standard named after him.
E. He did what he could to promote this foreign faith within his kingdom.



18.

A. After fighting with Allan over his heavy gambling debts, he was forced to leave UVA after only eight months.
B. On this day in 1809, poet, author and literary critic Edgar Allan Poe is born in Boston, Massachusetts.
C. Poe then served two years in the U.S. Army and won an appointment to West Point but after another falling-out, Allan cut him off completely and he got himself dismissed from the academy for rules infractions.
D. By the time he was three years old, both of Poe’s parents had died, leaving him in the care of his godfather, John Allan, a wealthy tobacco merchant.
E. After attending school in England, Poe entered the University of Virginia (UVA) in 1826.



19.

A. Born John Luther Jones in Missouri in 1863, the future folk hero moved with his family as a boy to Cayce, Kentucky, the town from which he got his nickname.
B. Casey Jones was a locomotive engineer who became a folk hero after his death in a train crash in 1900 was commemorated in a number of songs.
C. According to legend, Jones died with one hand on the train’s whistle and the other hand on its brake.
D. On April 29, 1900, Jones, then an engineer for the Illinois Central Railroad, arrived in Memphis, Tennessee, where the tragic incident occurred.
E. As a teenager, he began working for the railroads and later moved to Jackson, Tennessee.


20.

A. As officials, their vision of a country shouldn’t run too far beyond that of the local people with whom they have to deal.
B. Ambassadors have to choose their words.
C. To say what they feel they have to say, they appear to be denying or ignoring part of what they know.
D. So, with ambassadors as with other expatriates in black Africa, there appears at a first Meeting a kind of ambivalence.
E. They do a specialized job and it is necessary for them to live ceremonial lives.



21.

A. Then two astronomers-the German, Johannes Kepler, and the Italian, Galileo Galilei-started publicly to support the Copernican theory, despite the fact that the orbits it predicted did not quite match the ones observed.
B. His idea was that the sun was stationary at the centre and that the earth and the planets move in circular orbits around the sun.
C. A simple model was proposed in 1514 by a Polish priest, Nicholas Copernicus.
D. Nearly a century passed before this idea was taken seriously.



22.

A. Moreover, as software is often built on the achievements of others, writing code could become a legal hurdle race.
B. Critics claim that such intellectual monopolies hinder innovation because software giants can use them to attack fledgling competitors.
C. By analogy, if Haydn had patented the symphony form, Mozart would have been in trouble.
D. The issue of patents for software and business methods has been causing a stir in America ever since the Patents and Trademark Office started issuing patents on internet methods in 1998, most famously that for one-click shopping.
E. Proponents argue that these patents provide the necessary incentive to innovate at a time when more inventions are the computer related.



23.

A. This is now orthodoxy to which I subscribe— up to a point.
B. It emerged from the mathematics of chance and statistics.
C. Therefore the risk is measurable and manageablE.
D. The fundamental concept: Prices are not predictable, but the mathematical laws of chance can describe their fluctuations.
E. This is how what business schools now call modern finance was born.



 24.

A. With the passage of time, vices become more apparent and virtues become objects of jealousy and envy, thereby causing contempt and hatred in the hearts of each other.
B. They become familiar with not only strengths but also weaknesses of each other’s characters.
C. Generally people think that familiarity should breed love, mutual understanding and tolerance.
D. They expect that coming together of two persons should bring them closer and forge the bond of kinship between them.
E. But when two persons come closer, they come to know not only strengths but also weaknesses of each other’s character.



25.

A. This very insatiability of the photographing eye changes the terms of confinement in the cave, our world.
B. Humankind lingers unregenerately in Plato’s cave, still revelling, its age-old habit, in mere images of truth.
C. But being educated by photographs is not like being educated by older images drawn by hand; for one thing, there are a great many more images around, claiming our attention.
D. The inventory started in 1939 and since then just about everything has been photographed, or so it seems.
E. In teaching us a new visual code, photographs alter and enlarge our notions of what is worth looking at and what we have a right to observe.



26.

A. Four days later, Oracle announced its own bid for PeopleSoft, and invited the firm’s board to a discussion.
B. Furious that his own plans had been endangered, PeopleSoft’s boss, Craig Conway, called Oracle’s offer “diabolical”, and its boss, Larry Ellison, a “sociopath”.
C. In early June, PeopleSoft said that it would buy J.D. Edwards, a smaller rival.
D. Moreover, said Mr. Conway, “he could imagine no price nor combination of price and other conditions to recommend accepting the offer.”
E. On June 12th, PeopleSoft turned Oracle down.



27.

A. To avoid this, the QWERTY layout put the keys most likely to be hit in rapid succession on opposite sides. This made the keyboard slow, the story goes, but that was the idea.
B. A different layout, which had been patented by August Dvorak in 1936, was shown to be much faster.
C. The QWERTY design (patented by Christopher Sholes in 1868 and sold to Remington in 1873) aimed to solve a mechanical problem of early typewriters.
D. Yet the Dvorak layout has never been widely adopted, even though (with electric typewriters and then PCs) the anti-jamming rationale for QWERTY has been defunct for years.
E. When certain combinations of keys were struck quickly, the type bars often jammed.



28.

A. Electronic transactions are happening in closed group networks and Internet. Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of Internet to emerge.
B. Cash transactions offer both privacy and anonymity as it does not contain information that can be used to identify the parties nor the transaction history.
C. To support e-commerce, we need effective payment systems and secure communication channels and data integrity.
D. The whole structure of traditional money is built on faith and so will electronic money have to be.
E. Moreover, money is worth what it is because we have come to accept it.



29.

A. For the atmosphere becomes thinner.
B. When a satellite is launched, the rocket begins by going slowly upwards through the air.
C. As a result, there is less friction.
D. However, the higher it goes, the less air it meets.
E. Consequently, the rocket still does not become too hot.
F. As the rocket goes higher, it travels faster.



30.

A. With the pressure on resources of development becoming increasingly severe, the issue of tapping the agricultural surplus cannot be put off.
B. But the methods of utilizing these resources more efficiently have not been debated sufficiently
C. The existence of a substantial surplus in this sector is not in doubt.
D. There has been a tendency to concentrate on the possibilities of using an agricultural income tax to tap these resources.



31.

A. Of course, sitting out in the country I possessed less information than anyone else at headquarters about was going on, but they called me anyway.
B. But as soon I arrived at my country house, the telephone began ringing.
C. And it kept right on ringing with questions from people back at the office about the most mundane matters.
D. In the summer of 1992, the first year I became president of XYZ, I decided to take a two-week vacation.



32.

A. The Saheli Programme run by the US Cross-Cultural Solutions is offering a three week tour of India that involves a lot more than frenzied sightseeing.
B. Participants interested in women’s issues will learn about arranged marriages, dowry and infanticide.
C. Holiday packages include all sorts of topics but female infanticide must be the first for tourism.
D. Interspersed with these talks and meetings are visits to cities like New Delhi and Agra, home to Taj Mahal.



33.

A. Commercially reared chicken can be unusually aggressive and are often kept in darkened sheds to prevent them pecking at each other.
B. The birds spent far more of their time up to a third-pecking at the inanimate objects in the pens, in contrast to birds in other pens which spent a lot of time attacking others. Bales could diminish aggressiveness and reduce injuries; they might even improve productivity since a happy chicken is a productive chicken.
C. In low light conditions, they behave less belligerently but are more prone to ophthalmic disorders and respiratory problems.
D. In an experiment, aggressive head-pecking was all but eliminated among birds in the enriched environment.
E. Altering the birds’ environment, by adding bales of wood shavings to their pens, can work wonders.



34.

A. However, the real challenge today is in unlearning which is much harder.
B. But the new world of business behaves differently from the world in which we grew up.
C. Learning is important for both people and organizations.
D. Each of us has’ mental model’ that we vet used over the years to make sense.



35.

A. In fact, during the 1966-67 season in New York, theater-goers could have seen ’Barefoot in the park’;’ The odd Couple’;’ Sweet Charity’ and ‘The Star-Spangled Girl’, which were all running simultaneously.
B. His first play for Broadway was ‘Come Blow Your Horn’, which had a limited success and encouraged him to write his first real smash Broadway hit, ‘Barefoot in the Park’.
C. With the advent of television, he progressed to shows like The Ed Sulli van programme and, in particular, two and a half years with the highly successful Bilko series which is still showing throughout the world.
D. Neil Simon, who is, without a doubt, America’s Leading comedy writer, started his career when only sixteen years old, writing with his brother Daniel, scripts for radio.



36.

A. They even find it difficult to interpret long written notices.
B. But they succeed in playing games of chess.
C. The study of speech disorders due to brain injury suggests that patients can think without having adequate control over their language.
D. Some patients, for example, fail to find the names of objects presented to them.
E. They can even use the concepts needed for chess playing, though they are unable to express many of the concepts in ordinary language



37.

A. Nehru’s idea of secularism was equal indifference to all religions and bothering about none of them.
B. Such secularism which means the rejection of all religions is contrary to our culture and tradition.
C. There is a difference between Gandhiji’s concept of secularism and that of Nehru’s.
D. Instead of doing any good, such secularism can do harm instead of good.
E. In Gandhiji’s view, secularism stands for equal respect for all religions.