1. Using infant mortality as a key indicator of the status of children, we now begin to have the broad features of a hypothesis as to the causes of higher or lower mortality rates. One aspect is the complex of factors involving the access of mothers to trained personnel and other facilities for child delivery, the nutritional status of pregnant and nursing mothers and the quality of health care and nourishment which babies receive.
The other aspect, indicated by rural-urban differentials, is the possible importance of human settlement patterns in relation to the availability of health care and related facilities such as potable water, excreta disposal systems, etc. Thus, in a special sense, it is much cheaper to make health and other basic services available to a community when it is densely settled rather than widely dispersed. It is possible to argue, however, that both these sets of factors are closely related to a third one, namely, income levels. Poorer mothers and babies have less access to health-care facilities and nourishment than those who are better off; urban communities are on an average much better off than rural communities.
That economic condition plays a crucial role in determining the status of both mother and child, is beyond dispute. But the question really is whether this is the only decisive factor or whether factors such as the availability of medical facilities, healthcare programs, and nutritional programs have an independent role. If so then the settlement patterns which affect service delivery to the mother and child target groups become a relevant consideration. These are clearly issues of some importance for policy and program planning.
Which among the following statements are correct?
[A]. It is easy and economical to provide health care facilities in dense settlements.
[B]. The fact that income has an important role to play in health care is arguable.
[C]. A densely settled community has to be supplied with health and basic services after bearing a large cost.
[D]. Mothers from well to do families can provide better care and facilities to their babies.
[E]. The settlement conditions, income levels, and health facilities are the only influencing factors behind the varying mortality rates.
2. Until the mid-20th century, scientists believed that the chest cavity would implode at around 115 feet. Water pressure, they argued, reaches 65 pounds per square inch at that depth, which is enough to shrink lungs to the size of grapefruits and collapse rib cages like empty soda cans. Their theory went out the window in the 1950’s and early 1960’s, however, when divers like Enzo Maiorca returned from beyond 115-feet with rib cages intact. We now know that water pressure forces blood vessels in the chest to swell, filling the void left by the lungs with an incompressible fluid.
Among the dangers of free diving, the most disconcerting is shallow-water blackout—the brains frightening tendency to shut down within 15 feet of the surface during the ascent. As you descend, water pressure squeezes your lungs, condensing the oxygen and giving you what feels like a second breath. During the return trip, however, your lungs re-expand, dissipating whats left of your oxygen. If levels drop too low, not enough will move into the bloodstream, and the lights go out. Fortunately, the body’s laryngospasm reflex kicks in to tighten the throat and keep water out for up to a minute—just enough time for your dive buddy to drag you to the surface, tilt your head back, and beg, “Breathe, baby.”
Knowing Johnston will be there watching my eyes as I ascend (seeing them roll back in the head is a red flag), I dip below the surface. Staying in the syringe—dive speak for a tight hydrodynamic column—I kick down to 30 feet, my point of neutral buoyancy, and then sink effortlessly to the bottom. I feel good—surprisingly good—thanks to the densely packed oxygen molecules in my lungs.
Lingering a moment, I peer up at the mirrored surface that separates this liquid world from mine. Diving to 55 feet was no sweat. I figure I could dive twice that with a little practice, reaching what scientists thought, not 50 years ago, was the body’s depth limit. Today, however, that boundary has been pushed to at least 531 feet (the current no-limits world record), which begs the question: Just how deep can humans go? “We don’t know that yet,” says Lundgren, adding ominously. “But one day someone will find out
Which of the following is true in respect of the effect of water pressure on humans?
[A]. Scientists believed that the chest cavity would blow up at a depth of about 115 feet.
[B]. Rib cages will collapse at the water pressure of 65 pounds per square inch.
[C]. Blood vessels of the chest enlarge and fill the empty space left by lungs that have been compressed.
[D]. It is now known that lungs will not shrink with the increase in water pressure.
[E]. It is no longer believed that the chest cavity will cave in at a depth of about 115 feet.
3. The Western alphabet, which is used in Europe, the Americas,
Africa, Australia and New Zealand as well as in other countries, originated in
the Middle East. The people who gave the world this alphabet were the
Phoenicians, a people who established colonies all over the Mediterranean,
including Carthage in Africa and Gades in Spain. In their alphabet, the letters
were represented by little pictures which represented sounds. The Phoenician A
was Aleph, which means “bull”. and it
was made from a little picture of a bull’s head. The letter B was Beth which meant “house”, and showed the round-roofed buildings which you can still see today in Syria.
The Phoenicians had contact with another nation of sailors, the Greeks, with whom they fought and traded. The Greeks also started to use the Phoenician alphabet. They changed the names so aleph and beth became alpha and beta. The shapes of the letters are the same but they have been turned sideways. Of course, the first two letters of the alphabet give it its name. Over the years there have been changes. Latin developed an alphabet with some different letters to the Greeks, and other letters have been added since. But really westerners are using the same system of writing which has served them so well for thousands of years.
Which of the following are true statements in accordance with the information given in the above passage?
[A]. The purpose of this text is to tell something of the Phoenician history.
[B]. The Greeks turned the letters in a different direction.
[C]. The Phoenicians came from Carthage.
[D]. The Phoenician alphabet was composed of individual signs.
[E]. Our modern system of writing is similar to the Phoenician alphabet.
4. When we accept the evidence of our unaided eyes and describe the Sun as a yellow star, we have summed up the most important single fact about it-at this moment in time.
It appears probable, however, that sunlight will be the color we know for only a negligibly small part of the Sun’s history. Stars, like individuals, age and change. As we look out into space, We see around us stars at all stages of evolution. There are faint blood-red dwarfs so cool that their surface temperature is a mere 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit, there are searing ghosts blazing at 100, 000 degrees Fahrenheit and almost too hot to be seen, for the great part of their radiation is in the invisible ultraviolet range. Obviously, the “daylight” produced by any star depends on its temperature; today(and for ages to come) our Sun is at about 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit, and this means that most of the Sun’s light is concentrated in the yellow band of the spectrum, falling slowly in intensity toward both the longer and shorter light waves.
That yellow “hump” will shift as the Sun evolves, and the light of day will change accordingly. It is natural to assume that as the Sun grows older, and uses up its hydrogen fuel which it is now doing at the spanking rate of half a billion tons a second- it will become steadily colder and redder.
Which of the following statements can be supported by this text?
[A]. The passage is mainly about the evolutionary cycle of the Sun
[B]. Hot stars are referred to as “ghosts because they are nearly invisible.
[C]. The important thing about the Sun at the present time is that it appears yellow
[D]. As the Sun continues to age, it is likely to become colder and redder in color.
[E]. Sun has a short history and it always remains the same.
5. Given the record of our political class, the proposal to give tax rebates for political donations will likely meet a similar fate. Instead of cleaning up political life then, the bill runs the risk of being a godsend for fly-by-night middlemen and fixers, and unscrupulous businessmen. The other objection to the bill is a more traditional one, namely that rather than private donations, the solution is in state funding of parties. This not only ensures that there is some sense of proportion and fairness in the quantum of funding available to different parties, but also that funding does not become a means of determining the political agenda.
Private funding, in this argument, is an unacceptable form of political lobbying which promotes the specific demands of donors apart from generally favoring conservative, mainstream parties, squeezing out those representing minority voices. Whatever its merits, the most serious obstacle to this kind of reasoning comes from the precarious nature of public finance in the country. At a time when the Indian state is already hard-pressed to find resources for education, health, and other social security activities, can there be a case for it to burden itself with a new category of expenses? In purely economic terms too, the proposed tax breaks do not augur well for the savings sector; and this when the sagging savings graph in the economy is already a matter of increasing anxiety.
Which demands according to the writer of the passage deserve better attention than the political funds?
[A]. To provide better education opportunities to the citizens.
[B]. Serving the health-related requirements of the people.
[C]. Educational donations to institutions.
[D]. Taking care of the safety and security of the citizens.
[E]. The funds for the proper functioning of transport systems.
6. In terrestrial affairs we think of “big” as being complicated; a city is more intricate than a village, an ocean more complicated than a puddle. For the universe, the reverse seems to be the case bigger is simpler Galaxies have some puzzling features, but on the whole, they are scarcely more complicated than the stars that compose them Beyond the galaxies, in the hierarchy of the cosmos, there are clusters of galaxies; these clusters are loosely bound by the gravity of their largest members and tend to look very much the same in all directions. Simplest of all is the universe at large, it is far less complicated than the Earth, one of its most trivial members. The universe consists of billions of galaxies flying apart as if from an explosion that set it in motion, it is not lopsided, nor does it rotate. The more thoroughly scientists investigate the universe, the more clearly its simplicity shines through.
Which of the following statements can be supported by the text?
[A]. The universe is a relatively simple phenomenon.
[B]. Billions of galaxies are predicted to explode, adding to the universal complexity.
[C]. Galaxy clusters are an illusion.
[D]. Clusters of galaxies are held together by gravity.
7. The crisis begins in the womb with unplanned parenthood. Women with unplanned pregnancies are less likely to seek prenatal care. In the U.S. 80% of teenage pregnancies and 56% of all pregnancies are unplanned. The problems continue after birth where unplanned pregnancies and unstable partnerships often go hand in hand. Since 1950, the number of single-parent families has nearly tripled. More than 25 percent of all births today are to unmarried mothers. As the number of single parent families grows and more women enter the workforce, infants and toddlers are increasingly in the care of people other than their parents. Most disturbingly, recent statistics show that American parents are increasingly neglecting or abusing their children. In only four years from 1987-1991, the number of children in foster care increased by over 50 percent. Babies under the age of one are the fastest growing category of children entering foster care. The crisis affects children under the age of three most severely, the report says. Yet, it is this period from infancy through preschool years that sets the stage for a child’s future.
What can be the possible reasons for the increasing neglect and abuse of children?
[A]. The immaturity and overburdening of parents.
[B]. The babies being left in foster care where a stranger looks after them.
[C]. The children being ill mannered and not respecting their parents.
[D]. The parents being busy with meeting the financial aspects of the family and not having enough time for the children.
8. The first English attempts to colonize North America were controlled by individuals rather than companies. Sir Humphrey Gilbert was the first Englishman to send colonists to the New World. His initial expedition, which sailed in 1578 with a patent granted by Queen Elizabeth was defeated by the Spanish. A second attempt ended in disaster in 1583 when Gilbert and his ship were lost in a storm.
In the following year, Gilbert’s half brother, Sir Water Raleigh, having obtained a renewal of the patent, sponsored an expedition that explored the coast of the region that he named “Virginia.” Under Raleigh’s direction efforts were then made to establish a colony on Roanoke Island in 1585 and 1587. The survivors of the first settlement on Roanoke returned to England in 1586, but the second group of colonists disappeared without leaving a trace.
The failure of the Gilbert and Raleigh ventures made it clear that the tasks they had undertaken were too big for any one colonizer. Within a short time, the trading company had supplanted the individual promoter of colonization.
Which of the following statements can be supported by this text?
[A]. The first English settlement on Roanoke Island was established in 1587.
[B]. Sir Humphrey Gilbert never settled in North America.
[C]. Members of the first Roanoke settlement explored the entire coastal region.
[D]. Sir Walter Raleigh’s initial expedition set out for North America in 1584.
[E]. The first English people established colonies in North America because they were requested to do so by Queen Elizabeth.
9. Forces other than damaging winds are also at work inside tornadoes. Sometimes, as the writhing, twisting funnel passes over a house, the walls and ceiling burst apart as if a bomb had gone off inside. This explosion is caused by the low air pressure at the center of a tornado.
The pressure at the center of a tornado is usually 13 pounds per square inch. However, inside the house, the air pressure is normal, about 15 pounds per square inch. The difference of 2 pounds per square inch between the inside and outside pressure may not seem like much. But suppose a tornado funnel passes over a small building that measures 20 by 10 by 10 feet. On each square inch of the building, there is 2 pounds of pressure from the inside that is not balanced by air pressure outside the building. On the ceiling, that adds up to an unbalanced pressure of 57, 600 pounds. The pressure on the four walls adds up to 172,800 pounds.
If windows are open in the building, some of the inside air will rush out through them. This will balance the pressure inside and outside the building. But if the windows are shut tightly, the enormous inside pressure may cause the building to burst.
Unfortunately, heavy rain and hail often occur in thunderstorms that later produce tornadoes. So people frequently shut all windows to protect their property. This may cause far worse damage later. For the same reason, tornado cellars must have an air vent. Otherwise, the cellar door might be blown out when a tornado passes over it.
Which of the following statements can be supported by the information given in the passage?
[A]. The difference per square inch between the air pressure inside a building and the air pressure inside a tornado is of 2 pounds.
[B]. According to passage, Tornadoes can destroy building because the air pressure inside the tornado is less than the air pressure inside the building
[C]. The pressure on a building during a tornado can be relieved by closing the cellar.
[D]. The passage talks about as how tornadoes can be prevented.
10. Exposure to high levels of noise can cause permanent hearing loss. Neither surgery nor a hearing aid can help correct this type of hearing loss. Short-term exposure to loud noise can also cause a temporary change in hearing (your ears may feel stuffed up) or a ringing in your ears (tinnitus). These short-term problems may go away within a few minutes or hours after leaving the noise. However, repeated exposures to loud noise can lead to permanent tinnitus and/or hearing loss.
Loud noise can create physical and psychological stress, reduce productivity, interfere with communication and concentration, and contribute to workplace accidents and injuries by making it difficult to hear warning signals. The effects of noise-induced hearing loss can be profound, limiting your ability to hear high-frequency sounds, understand speech, and seriously impairing your ability to communicate.
When sound waves enter the outer ear, the vibrations impact the ear drum and are transmitted to the middle and inner ear. In the middle ear, three small bones called the malleus (or hammer), the incus (or anvil), and the stapes (or stirrup) amplify and transmit the vibrations generated by the sound to the inner ear. The inner ear contains a snail-like structure called Cochlea which is filled with fluid and lined with cells with very fine hairs. These microscopic hairs move with the vibrations and convert the sound waves into nerve impulses–the result is the sounds we hear. Exposure to loud noise can destroy these hair cells and cause hearing loss!
Which of the following statements about health can be supported by the text?
[A]. Even after long exposure, the sound is unlikely to cause hearing loss.
[B]. The cochlea is responsible for the transfer of sound waves into nerve impulses.
[C]. Exposure to noise at work can harm worker’s health.
[D]. Three small bones of outer ear – malleus, incus, and stapes are attached like a chain to the tympanic membrane and convert sound waves.
11. Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Europe, in which the emotional content is conveyed to the audience as much through music, both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the lyrics. By contrast, in musical theater an actor’s dramatic performance is primary, and the music plays a lesser role. The drama in opera is presented using the primary elements of theater such as scenery, costumes, and acting. However, the words of the opera, or libretto, are sung rather than spoken. The singers are accompanied by a musical ensemble ranging from a small instrumental ensemble to a full symphonic orchestra.
Which of the following statements about Opera can be supported from this text?
[A]. Opera is a drama sung with the accompaniment of an orchestra.
[B]. Orchestras in operas can vary considerably in size
[C]. Music in musical theater is not as important as it is in opera.
[D]. There is argument over whether the music is important or the words in opera
[E]. Many people find musical theater more captivating than opera.
12. In Asia and much of the Third World, trees are still destroyed in an old-fashioned way: they are cut down for fuel and cropland. In Europe, there is a new and potentially more deadly culprit. The German call it ‘Waldsterben’, the dying forest syndrome. But the disease is far more than a German phenomenon. Since it was first observed by German scientists in the autumn of 1980, the mysterious malady has raced across Europe, blighting woods in countries as far apart as Sweden and Italy.
Explanations for the epidemic range from a cyclic change in the environment to a baffling form of tree cancer. But the most convincing evidence points to air pollution. Indeed, saving the rapidly deteriorating forests of Europe will probably require a two-pronged strategy: an offensive campaign that includes the breeding of pollution-immune trees and a defensive scheme that calls for reductions in toxic emissions. But both will require more money than is currently being spent on such measures, as well as total commitment to protecting the environment.
Why do you think the narrator calls the reasons for cutting the trees in the third world countries, ‘old fashioned’?
[A]. As the countries he is referring to are known as the third world, or under-developed countries.
[B]. Since science has made available modern and much-developed methods to satisfy these requirements.
[C]. As the reasons for which the trees are cut are no longer valid in today’s scenario.
[D]. It is a biased comment on the part of the narrator as it seems he belongs to a highly developed nation or society.
[E]. As there are modern solutions for the requirement of fuel and cropland available to us now.
13.A rain forest is a thick jungle which gets an unusually large amount of rain. Rainforests cover about 6% of the earth’s surface. They hold about one-half of the world’s plant and animal types. The four layers of a rain forest are the emergent layer, canopy layer, understory layer and forest floor.
The emergent layer is made up of very tall trees up to 200 feet high. They are usually evergreens. There is good sunlight there. The canopy layer forms a roof over the 2 remaining layers. Animals like snakes, toucans, and tree frogs live in this layer. Not much sun reaches the next layer, the understory layer. Plants then have to grow larger leaves to try to reach the sun. Jaguars, leopards and many insects live here. The final layer, the forest floor, has almost no plants. Many leaves decay quickly there due to the darkness. Giant anteaters live in this layer.
Rainforests are found in five major areas of the world. Central America is famous for its brightly colored birds. The Amazon jungle in South America is the world’s largest rain forest. It has the greatest variety of plants and animals of any other place on earth. Central Africa contains the world’s second largest rainforest. The rainforests of Asia stretch from India in the west to the islands of Java and Borneo in the Pacific Ocean in the east. Australia’rainforeststs are very dense and lush.
The plants that live in the rainforests provide shelter and food for the animals. They also participate in gas exchanges and provide much of the world’s oxygen supply. Plants compete for sunlight on the ground so some plants live on the branches of other plants. Aerial plants can get food from the air itself using air roots.
Some interesting animals live in the rain-forest. Toucans are colorful birds with short and thick necks. The bright colors on their bill help attract a mate. Their bills are sharp and can tear off pieces of big fruit. They eat lizards and small birds and live in holes in trees. Toucans live in the canopy layer in South and Central America. They are important because they help to scatter the seed from the fruit they eat.
Which of the following statements are supported by information given in the text?
[A]. The rain forests are only found in Central Africa and Australia
[B]. There is no sunlight in the emergent layer of the rain forest.
[C]. Some plants live on the branches of other plants.
[D]. Toucans scatter seeds from fruits and berries.