Fill in the Blanks:

1.About three million young people in the United States are ………….. in cheerleading.People often think of cheerleaders when they think of school spirit.Cheerleaders are a …………….. at football games and other sports events.  They help get the crowds excited for their team.In the past, cheerleading at American schools mostly involved shouting cheers and jumping up and down.  But cheerleading has …………. into a sport of its own.The moves are more physical.Cheerleaders, for example, are often thrown into the air.The ……………. of modern cheerleading has led to more injuries.A new study shows that the number nationwide increased one hundred ten percent during the years examined.It says hospital emergency rooms ……………… more than two hundred thousand cheerleaders between 1990 and 2002.

tradition |  involved | grown | part | difficulty | treated |complexity | admitted



2. The American Civil War began in 1861 as a …………  over the right of states to leave the Union. President Abraham Lincoln firmly …………..  that a state did not have that right. And he declared war on the southern states that tried to leave.Lincoln had only one reason to fight: to save the Union. In time, however, there was another reason to fight: to free the black people held as slaves in the South.Lincoln had tried to keep the ………….. of slavery out of the war. He feared it would ……………… the northern war effort. Many men throughout the North would fight to save the Union. They would not fight to free the slaves.

thought | struggle | believed | hamper | issue | weaken | demand



3. The use of valuable stones like diamonds goes back thousands of years. Rulers of many ancient ………….. used gemstones to show wealth and importance. Diamonds still …………… power and fame. Rich and famous people around the world wear diamonds. And, most women in the United States receive a diamond ring when they agree to a marriage proposal.Diamonds are ………….. from the Earth. They are cut, made to shine and then sold at high prices. The nation of South Africa is ………… for its supply of diamonds. For generations, men have gone deep down into the Earth to bring out the rough stones. It is very …………… and dangerous work.

demanding | signify | cultures | exploited | represent | mined | famous | difficult | supplier Show Answers



4.The group of explorers that discovered the ………………… of an ancient city in the jungle of Honduras while hunting for the legendary lost city of La Ciudad Blanca , otherwise known as City of the Monkey God, almost lost their faces to a flesh-eating parasite. Inhabitants of the ancient city had ………………. it in the 16th century after believing gods had cursed their city with disease.La Ciudad Blanca is a ……………. city that was said to be located in the virgin rain forest of Mosquitia in eastern Honduras. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés reported ………………….  “trustworthy” information about the ancient ruins, but never located them.

collecting | abandoned | remains | legendary | hearing | ancient | deserted | ruins



5. The first …………….. of olive trees is dated to the 7th millennia BC. The first known olive trees grew in the Levant, in the lands of Persia and Mesopotamia. The olive tree also ……………. on tablets and pieces of wood hidden in ancient tombs. People who lived millennia ago saw the olive tree as a life-giving tree. It also ……………one of the first goods used for trade. Early evidence of the ……………………..  and usage of olive oil is known from archaeological sites in Crete, Israel, and Syria too.

appeared |  appreciation |   provided | reference | admiration | graced | evidence | granted



6. The Nekton Mission is an ………… of 30 organizations conducting the longest seafloor survey in history. Think of it as a physical exam for the ocean. Future groups will be able to use the mission’s …………………. findings to chart how oceans will respond to human-made threats like global warming. The project is …………………. by XL Catlin, a global insurance company from Ireland that has sponsored similar environmental surveys since 2009. None of the work is ………………….. , and the data are open access so other researchers can use them.

baseline | trademark  |  sponsored  | proprietary | alliance | association | funded | guideline



7. Many researchers have previously argued that the megafauna became …………… soon after the arrival of the First Australians.For example, it has been …………… that perhaps  firing of the landscape dramatically ………………..  ancient Australia’s ecology. One species in particular, the giant flightless bird  Genyornis Newtoni  was investigated and shown to have …………….. to significant habitat change and direct  predation.

argued | extinct | reasoned  | altered | wiped | succumbed | reshaped | capitulated



8. According to the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry (ABPI), on average it takes more than 12 years and £1 billion to research and develop a new medicine ……………. for public use.Perhaps the most critical phase of a drug’s ………………….. is human clinical trials, which are used by pharmaceutical companies to …………….. the benefits and the safety of newly developed drugs. For every medicine that is successfully developed for use by the public, the ABPI says that 25,000 chemical ………………… are tested, of which only 25 make it to the clinical trial stage and only five are ultimately approved for human use.

mixture | assess |   development | evaluate | suitable | evolution | compounds | worthy



9.More than £100 billion is spent on healthcare in England every year – almost 15% of government …………………. In the current era of reduced public spending there is ………….. pressure on the regional bodies that commission health services to make better use of their …………… resources.At the same time they have a duty to deliver ………………… in the quality of care and achieve the best value for money, as set out in the Government’s mandate.

improvements | ongoing |  spending | continual | limited | budget | development



10. The Danaan and Danites are a mystery people for many historians. Speculated to have been Greek seafarers in the late Bronze Age, they are also closely ………………. with the Sea Peoples who ravaged the Eastern Mediterranean during the same period. Other evidence suggests they originated somewhere along the coast of the Levant, or they were an Israelite tribe that fled with Moses during the biblical ………………….. from Egypt. Whoever the Danaan or Danites were, they left a …………… legacy.The warriors who sacked Egypt for its spoils or Homer’s Troy may explain the mysterious identity and origins of these people, along with the use of Greek ……………. and the Bible itself.

The Danaan and Danites are a mystery people for many historians. Speculated to have been Greek seafarers in the late Bronze Age, they are also closely ………………. with the Sea Peoples who ravaged the Eastern Mediterranean during the same period. Other evidence suggests they originated somewhere along the coast of the Levant, or they were an Israelite tribe that fled with Moses during the biblical ………………….. from Egypt. Whoever the Danaan or Danites were, they left a …………… legacy.The warriors who sacked Egypt for its spoils or Homer’s Troy may explain the mysterious identity and origins of these people, along with the use of Greek ……………. and the Bible itself.

Exodus | associated | mythologies | departure | conflicting | related | legendary



11.On February 2, 1887—a few months after an …………… had reduced a third of the commercial buildings in Punxsutawney to ashes—a small group of men ascended a wooded area a mile outside the small western Pennsylvania coal town in search of a local rodent said to possess meteorological ……………….. powers. “Up to the time of going to press the beast has not seen his shadow,” the Punxsutawney Spirit …………….. reported to its readers. Later that day, however, the men of what would become known as the Punxsutawney Groundhog Club ……………. one of the local woodchucks and reported back to the town that it had seen its shadow, meaning six more weeks of winter.

spotted |    forecasting | dejectedly  | noted | predicting |  sadly |  inferno | storm



12. If you had a globe at home when you were a child, you may have played the game of …………….. the globe, placing your finger on it lightly, and wherever the globe stops under your finger is where you will visit. “Round and round she goes, and where she stops nobody knows.”If you spun a globe and it…………….. on North London, and spun it again and it landed on the Isle of Wight, you would be in the ……………… of two companies that make custom, ……………… globes by hand and to order. One is Bellerby & Co. Globemakers in London. The other is Lander & May, in the city of Cowes on the Isle of Wight in Britain.

terrestrial |  landed |   vicinity |    revolving | stops | spinning | area | celestial



13. Using the largest set of radiocarbon dates ever ……………. from a single Maya site, archaeologists have developed a …………… timeline that clarifies patterns leading up to two major collapses of the ancient civilization.

Scientists have long …………….. over what caused what is known as the Classic Maya collapse in the ninth century CE when many of the ancient civilization’s cities were abandoned. More recent investigations have revealed that the Maya also experienced an earlier ……………… in the second century CE—now called the Preclassic collapse—that is even more poorly understood.

precise |  obtained|  puzzled |collapse | detailed | gathered | decline | assumed



14. Apollo 17 was the sixth Apollo mission to …………… on the moon, and the last to see humans walk on the surface. Though there are no firm plans from any space agency to ……………… humans to the moon in the near future, robotic exploration of the moon has continued, ……………….. as scientists discovered evidence of water ice on its surface. NASA’s Lunar ………………………. Orbiter has also taken high-resolution imagery of all the Apollo landing sites, including Apollo 17.

reconnaissance |escpecially | land | return | particularly | surveying | send | landed



15. Kazakhstan was once a nomadic, quiet country, much of it, in the words of Nikita Khrushchev, “virgin land.” When the country …………… independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, it began an often awkward ……………… to the modern centralized power of a settled people. The most ……………….. example of this transition may be the capital city, Astana, which grew from its earlier emptiness (and its earlier name: Tselinograd) into a cultural, tech, and ………………. capital, the kind of built-overnight 21st-century oil jungle that brings to mind cities like Doha or Dubai.

took | changes | illustrative  | gained | economic| transition | significant | business



16. Many old spells have been lost or ………………….. over the years, but careful readers of medieval books can still recognize some of them tucked within old tomes. There is a spell from a 10th-century book which was one of the most wanted recipes for medical emergencies – it was created to …………… poisoning and infections.Magic spells are mentioned in some of the world’s oldest resources. It also seems that people had ……………. magic even before they learned how to write. Seeking spiritual or ………………… aid is still popular today and many people turn to the old beliefs when they face hardship.

heal | divine |  extinct |   forgotten |  cure | practiced | devotional | performed



17. According to tales and legends, the …………….. of Chinese New Year started with the fight against a ……………. beast called Nian, who had the body of a bull and the head of a lion.  It was said to be a ferocious animal that lived in the mountains and hunted for a living.   Towards the end of Winter when there was nothing to eat, Nian would come on the first day of New Year to the villages to eat livestock, crops, and even villagers, especially children. To ………..  themselves, the villagers would put food in front of their doors at the beginning of every year. It was …………. that after the Nian ate the food they prepared, it wouldn’t attack any more people.

safeguard |origin | mythical |  believed | fabled | beginning | protect | accepted



18. In Scotland it was believed the fairies sit on the mushrooms and use them as tables for their fetes, while in Wales the story goes that the mushrooms were …………… by the fairy folk and used as parasols or umbrellas. Even now in Wales it’s said the rings …………… an underground fairy village. Welsh folklore also ……………… the rings as locations of fertility and fortune, and claim that crops grown around them and livestock ………………. nearby will flourish.

signify | picked | feeding | considers | plucked | marked | living



19.Worldwide, around 60 per cent of the 500 known primate species are ……………. with extinction. primates live in tropical and subtropical areas and are mainly found in regions of Africa, South America, Madagascar and Asia. However, the extinction of a species must be …………….. a global problem. An international research team that includes two scientists from the German Primate Center — Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, …………… the economic, social, cultural, ecological and scientific importance of primates and the global ……………… of species extinctions. They call for a strengthening of awareness and a rethinking of the impending extinction events.

consequences |  threatened | evaluated |awaiting | considered | effects | recognized



20.For decades, scientists have …………… that the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates is driven largely by negative buoyancy created as they cool. New research, however, shows plate dynamics are ……………….. significantly by the additional force of heat drawn from the Earth’s core. The new findings also challenge the theory that underwater mountain ranges known as mid-ocean ridges are ………… boundaries between moving plates. The findings show the East Pacific Rise, the Earth’s ……………. mid-ocean ridge, is dynamic as heat is transferred.

driven |  dominant |  theorized | passive | powered | assumed | parallel



21. At the time Jane Austen’s novels were published – between 1811 and 1818 – English literature was not part of any academic curriculum. In addition, fiction was under …………….. attack. Certain religious and political groups felt novels had the power to make so called  ……………… characters so interesting young readers would identify with them; these groups also considered novels to be of little practical use. Even Cole-ridge, certainly no literary ……………….., spoke for many when he asserted that “novel-reading occasions the destruction of the mind’s power. These attitudes towards novels help explain why Austen received little ……………… from early nineteenth century literary critics.

immoral |  reactionary |   attention | fame | fierce |  strenuous | liberal | critics



22. Most of us are aware of the Great Wall of China, but ……………., many also ignore a massive wall that stands tall in India. The fort of Kumbhalgarh is the second most …………….. fort of Rajasthan after Chittorgarh and extends to the amazing length of 36 kilometers.

The wall that surrounds it, which history buffs love calling the “Great Wall of India”, is …………….. to be 80 kilometers long, a fact that would make it India’s longest ……………. and the second longest wall worldwide, only behind China’s.

significant |  speculated   | fortification |  apparently | famous | estimated | seemingly



23.The head of a Buddha statue estimated to be 600 years old recently ………………. from a Chinese reservoir in Nancheng County, when water levels receded during ……………… of a hydro power gate. A temple at the base of the 12.5-foot-tall  Buddha statue points to the ……………… of the site to villagers during the Ming Dynasty , or even the earlier Yuan Dynasty.

Xinhua reports that the water level in the reservoir in Jiangxi province fell about 10 meters to reveal the head of the statue carved into a cliff. Divers went in the water to investigate and found the …………… of a temple, which measures about 165 square meters.

significance | foundation | structure | importance | restoration | emerged | renovation | appeared